Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after moderate weight loss in 20 obese women, divided at baseline into insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration at the end of a 180-minute infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin. The groups were similar in age and body weight and lost comparable amounts of weight (8 to 9 kg) during the weight loss period. Fasting plasma insulin and SSPG concentrations were significantly higher (P <.001) and adiponectin concentrations somewhat lower (P =.10) in the IR group (P <.001) at baseline. Both SSPG and plasma insulin concentrations decreased in IR subjects (P <.001), but did not change in IS individuals. Adiponectin concentrations did not change with weight loss in either group. Thus, neither weight loss, per se, nor enhanced insulin sensitivity resulted in a change in plasma adiponectin concentrations.