Factors influencing contrast in fast spin-echo MR imaging

Magn Reson Imaging. 1992;10(4):497-511. doi: 10.1016/0730-725x(92)90001-g.


Multi-echo pulse sequences for producing T2-weighted images in much reduced imaging times have recently been developed for routine clinical use. A number of recent articles have described the contrast obtained with fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences and have generally indicated that they depict tissues very similarly to conventional spin-echo (SE) imaging. There are, however, some important differences in contrast between some tissues in FSE images. This work presents a detailed study of the contrast obtained with FSE imaging sequences and examines the image sequence and tissue parameters which influence contrast. The use of multiple refocusing pulses produces several subtle effects not seen in conventional SE imaging sequences, and in this study the precise nature and extent of such effects are described. The relative contributions to image contrast of magnetization transfer, the decoupling of J-modulation effects, the production of stimulated echoes and direct saturation effects, of diffusion and of the effects of the differential attenuation of different spatial frequencies, are each quantified. The mechanisms responsible for the brighter fat signal seen in FSE images, as well as the loss of signal from some other tissues, are explained. Computer simulations, phantom experiments, and clinical images are all used to support the conclusions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain / anatomy & histology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Time Factors