Central neurocytomas are rare intraventricular neoplasms of the central nervous system, compromising 0.25-0.5% of brain tumors. The diagnosis and management of these tumors remains controversial since most clinical series are small. Typically, patients with central neurocytomas have a favorable prognosis, but in some cases the clinical course is more aggressive. Although histological features of anaplasia do not predict biologic behavior, proliferation markers including MIB-1 might be more useful in predicting relapse. The most important therapeutic modality is surgery, and a safe maximal resection confers the best long-term outcome. In cases of a subtotal resection,'standard external beam radiation can be added or radiation can be delayed until tumor progression occurs. Smaller residual tumor volumes or recurrences can be treated with more conformal radiation or focused radiosurgery. Re-operation for recurrence should be considered if the procedure can be safely performed. Chemotherapy may be useful for recurrent central neurocytomas that cannot be resected and have been radiated, although long-term responses have not been reported for chemotherapy. Overall, this paper reviews the findings of the larger studies and highlights some of the important case reports that contribute to the current management of central neurocytomas.