The Lyon and the LINE hypothesis

Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2003 Dec;14(6):313-8. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2003.09.015.


X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was first suggested as an explanation for the variegated phenotypes in mice heterozygous for X-linked colour genes or for X-autosome translocations involving autosomal coat colour genes. The effects seen in X-autosome translocations led to the suggestion of an X-inactivation centre (Xic) from which the inactivation was initiated, and this suggestion has led to major advances in understanding. Another feature of X-autosome translocations is incomplete inactivation of the attached autosomal segment, implying that the X-chromosome is enriched in features favouring inactivation. Interspersed repeat elements, and in particular long interspersed elements (LINEs), have been suggested as the relevant enriching features. Recent evidence concerning this hypothesis is discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dosage Compensation, Genetic*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Translocation, Genetic*
  • X Chromosome / genetics*