Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide

Water Res. 2004 Mar;38(6):1514-9. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.021.


In this study, to elucidate the mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) by chlorine dioxide, cell culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and long-overlapping RT-PCR were used to detect the infectivity, antigenicity, and entire genome of HAV before and after disinfection. The results revealed the complete inactivation of infectivity after a 10-min exposure to 7.5mg of chlorine dioxide per liter; and the highest level of sensitivity in the 5'non-translated regions (5'NTR) (the sequence from bp 1 to 671), inactivation of which took as much time as the inactivation of infectivity of HAV by chlorine dioxide; the complete destruction of antigenicity after a 10-min exposure to 7.5mg of chlorine dioxide per liter. It is suggested that the inactivation mechanism of HAV by chlorine dioxide was due to the loss of the 5'NTR and/or destruction of the antigenicity, which is not similar to that of chlorine (Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 4951).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chlorine Compounds / pharmacology*
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA, Viral / analysis
  • Dental Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Hepatitis A Virus, Human / pathogenicity*
  • Oxides / pharmacology*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Water Purification / methods*


  • Chlorine Compounds
  • DNA, Viral
  • Dental Disinfectants
  • Oxides
  • chlorine dioxide