Purpose: We assessed clinical and surgical results in renal transplantation candidates with voiding dysfunction and end stage renal disease who underwent bladder augmentation.
Materials and methods: We analyzed 8 patients 3 to 30 years old with dilated ureters, voiding dysfunction and end stage renal disease who underwent renal transplantation following bladder augmentation from 1995 to 2003. The etiology of bladder dysfunction was neurogenic bladder in 3 patients, posterior urethral valves in 3 and vesicoureteral reflux in 2. All cases were assessed by ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography and urodynamic studies.
Results: Mean followup was 50 months (range 4 to 93). Previous urodynamic evaluation revealed a bladder capacity of 75 to 294 ml (mean +/- SD 167.38 +/- 77.32) and an intravesical pressure of 28 to 100 mm H2O (mean 51.25 +/- 22.17). Urodynamic study after augmentation and kidney transplantation showed a bladder capacity of 191 to 400 ml (mean 335.25 +/- 99.01) and an intravesical pressure of 15 to 35 mm H2O (mean 28 +/- 9.45). Mean serum creatinine was 1.65 mg/dl (range 0.8 to 2.5). All patients remained continent. Three patients with neurogenic bladder empty the bladder by clean intermittent catheterization and the others empty by the Valsalva maneuver. None of the grafts were lost and the most common complication was asymptomatic urinary tract infection.
Conclusions: Bladder augmentation is a well-known procedure for low capacity and poorly compliant bladders even in candidates for a renal transplant. Ureterocystoplasty combines the benefits common to all enterocystoplasties without adding to complications or risks.