Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been associated increasingly with ear, nose, and throat (ENT) signs and symptoms. However, the cause and effect relationship between these two clinical entities are far from established. Many patients diagnosed initially with GERD as the cause of laryngeal signs do not symptomatically or laryngoscopically respond to aggressive acid suppression and do not have abnormal esophageal acid exposure by pH monitoring. This has resulted in frustration on the part of both gastroenterologists and ENT physicians and confusion on the part of patients. In this article we discuss the reasons for this controversy and highlight the recent data attempting to clarify this complex area.