Purpose of review: The use of inhaled corticosteroids is one of the most controversial issues in COPD pharmacotherapy. Experts disagree about the benefits and harms of ICS for patients with COPD, yet a majority of patients with COPD are being treated with inhaled corticosteroids. This is a review of the most recent literature on this subject.
Recent findings: Evidence suggests that ICS, with or without a long-acting beta2-agonist, are cost-effective in reducing exacerbation rates and retarding the decline in health status of COPD patients, although they do not significantly modify the rate of decline in FEV1 or change mortality. This discrepancy is likely related to the differences in pathology of COPD when compared with asthma. Evidence also suggests that ICS may be safe regarding the effects on adrenals and bone mineral density. We have yet to identify reliable criteria for predicting a response to ICS in COPD, but it has become clear that in mild disease, no beneficial effect has been demonstrated.
Summary: In contrast to asthma, inhaled corticosteroids should not be used as a first-line medication in patients with COPD. Identification of patients with COPD who might benefit from long-term treatment with ICS remains paramount.