The regulation of protein stability by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a critical issue central to the comprehension of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis. However, ubiquitin modification of target substrates signals many cellular processes other than proteolysis that are also important for the development of cancer. It is noteworthy that many proteins studied by clinical breast cancer researchers are involved in these ubiquitin pathways. This review summarizes recent works on such proteins including cyclins, CDK inhibitors, and the SCF in cell cycle control; the breast and ovarian cancer suppressor BRCA1-BARD1; ErbB2/HER2/Neu and its ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl or CHIP; and the estrogen receptor and its downstream target Efp. Understanding these pathways may provide some hints toward developing diagnostic tools and treatments for breast cancer patients.