Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders with a prevalence estimated at 1/2500. The axonal form of this disorder is referred to as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 disease (CMT2). Recently, a large Chinese family with CMT2 was found in the Hunan and Hubei provinces of China. The known loci for CMT1A, CMT2D, CMT1B (the same locus is also responsible for CMT2I and CMT2J), CMT2A, CMT2E, and CMT2F were excluded in this family by linkage analysis. A genome-wide screening was then carried out, and the results revealed linkage of CMT2 to a locus at chromosome 12q24. Haplotype construction and analyses localized this novel locus to a 6.8-cM interval between microsatellite markers D12S366 and D12S1611. The maximal two-point LOD score of 6.35 and multipoint LOD score of 8.08 for marker D12S76 at a recombination fraction (theta) of 0 strongly supported linkage to this locus. Thus, CMT2 neuropathy in this family represents a novel genetic entity that we have designated as CMT2L.