T-cell anergy

Curr Opin Immunol. 2004 Apr;16(2):209-16. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2004.01.013.


Self-reactive T cells that escape negative selection in the thymus must be inactivated in the periphery. Anergy constitutes one means of imposing peripheral tolerance. Anergic T cells are functionally inactivated and unable to initiate a productive response even when antigen is encountered in the presence of full co-stimulation. Recent studies have provided new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the induction and maintenance of T-cell anergy. These studies have helped clarify the nature of the signals that induce tolerance, the cells able to deliver them and the molecular processes that underlie the unresponsive state.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clonal Anergy*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • Self Tolerance
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Thymus Gland / cytology
  • Thymus Gland / immunology


  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell