The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is expressed by bone marrow (BM) stromal cells and plays key roles in cell homing to and retention into the bone marrow. In multiple myeloma, blood-borne malignant plasma cells home to the BM and accumulate in contact with stromal cells, implicating myeloma cell migration across endothelium. Myeloma cells express the SDF-1alpha receptor CXCR4, as well as the integrin alpha4beta1, which mediates their attachment to BM stroma. We show here that SDF-1alpha promotes transendothelial migration of purified BM myeloma cells and myeloma-derived NCI-H929 cells, involving a transient upregulation of alpha4beta1-dependent cell adhesion to the endothelium. Characterization of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the modulation by SDF-1alpha of alpha4beta1-mediated myeloma cell adhesion revealed that intracellular cAMP amounts associated with the activation of protein kinase A play key roles in this modulation. Furthermore, a functional link between cAMP actions on the dynamics of actin cytoskeleton, RhoA activation, and alpha4beta1-dependent cell adhesion in response to SDF-1alpha has been found. The regulation of alpha4beta1-mediated myeloma cell adhesion by SDF-1alpha could play key roles during myeloma cell homing into and trafficking inside the BM, and characterization of the molecular events involved in SDF-1alpha-activated modulation of this adhesion will contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms participating in cell migration.