Two Aeromonas strains, IBS S6874(T) and IBS S6652, were isolated from the faeces of two healthy monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius that were kept in quarantine in the Centre for Primatology, Strasbourg, France. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two isolates formed an unknown genetic lineage within the genus Aeromonas. The two isolates had nearly identical sequences (0.1 % nucleotide substitution) that were related closely to those of recognized Aeromonas species (1.7-3.5 % nucleotide substitution). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strains IBS S6874(T) and IBS S6652 had high DNA-DNA similarity (89 %) to each other and a low level of DNA-DNA similarity to closely related taxa (18 % relatedness to Aeromonas trota and 16 % relatedness to Aeromonas schubertii). Phenotypically, the two monkey isolates differed from most previously described mesophilic Aeromonas species by their lack of haemolysis on sheep-blood agar and inability to produce indole, gas from glucose or acid from mannitol. They differed from the most closely related species, A. schubertii, by their ability to produce acid from D-cellobiose and D-sucrose and by their pyrazinamidase activity. The name Aeromonas simiae sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates; strain IBS S6874(T) (=CIP 107798(T)=CCUG 47378(T)) is the type strain.