Evaluation and treatment of thyroid disease is a common feature of primary care medicine. Nevertheless, the dose of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism is frequently not titrated to normalize the TSH, engendering the risks of under- or overtreatment. Other hypothyroid patients remain symptomatic even with normalized TSH on levothyroxine alone. Some of these patients improve symptomatically when liothyronine is added to the treatment regimen. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are also relatively common in primary care medical practice, and appropriately selected patients probably benefit from treatment. In the follow-up of patients treated for thyroid cancer, the use of rhTSH improves patient comfort considerably while allowing sensitive screening for persistent or recurrent cancer.