We evaluated clindamycin and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients with culture or histology positive for H. pylori were randomized to receive two tablets of bismuth subsalicylate four times daily for 4 weeks or bismuth combined with 2 weeks of 300 mg clindamycin four times daily. Clinical symptoms were recorded before and after treatment by means of visual analog scales. Patients in both treatment arms showed improvement in clinical scores for abdominal pain, heartburn, and gas or bloating. Microbiologic cure was achieved in only 1 of 11 patients treated with bismuth alone and in none of 7 treated with bismuth/clindamycin. Successful eradication of H. pylori may require combination of multiple antibiotics, as recommended at the IXth World Congress of Gastroenterology, or pharmacokinetic modulators such as H2-blockers or omeprazole.