A 10X rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed to aid in the physical and genetic mapping efforts of the rainbow trout genome. The library was derived from the Swanson clonal line (YY male) and consists of 184,704 clones with an average insert size of 137,500 bp (PFGE) or 118,700 bp (DNA fingerprinting). The clones were gridded onto 10 large nylon membranes to produce high-density arrays for screening the library by hybridization. The library was probed with 11 cDNAs from the NCCCWA EST project chosen because of interest in their homology to known gene sequences, seven known genes, and a Y-specific sex marker. Putative positive clones identified by hybridization were re-arrayed and gridded for secondary confirmation. FPC analysis of HindIII and EcoRV DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate the level of redundancy in the library, to construct BAC contigs and to detect duplicated loci in the semi-duplicated rainbow trout genome. A good correlation (R2 = 0.7) was found between the number of hits per probe and the number of contigs that were assembled from the positive BACs. The average number of BACs per contig was 9.6, which is in good agreement with 10X genome coverage of the library. Two-thirds of the loci screened were predicted to be duplicated as the positive BACs for those genes were assembled into two or three different contigs, which suggests that most of the rainbow trout genome is duplicated.