The NK activity and ADCC of peripheral blood mononuclear cell were examined to evaluate the contribution of ADCC and NK activity to host immune response against lung cancer. The NK activity and ADCC were examined in 58 patients with primary lung cancer and 40 healthy volunteers as normal controls. The NK activity of patients with lung cancer was significantly subnormal, but ADCC was at a normal level. The NK activity was decreased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but not in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) compared to normal controls. According to stage, the NK activity in stage II, III-M0 and III-M1 NSCLC showed low levels compared to that of stage I NSCLC, but there was no difference of NK activity in patients with SCLC. The NK activity was not affected by performance status. There was no significant difference of ADCC in patients with lung cancer according to cell type, stage and performance compared with that of normal controls. The NK activity and ADCC were not changed after chemotherapy and operation respectively.