MSY2 is implicated in regulating the stability and translation of maternal mRNAs during mouse oogenesis. We report here that by driving the expression of a transgene encoding an Msy2 hairpin dsRNA in growing oocytes using the oocyte-specific Zp3 promoter, the amount of MSY2 protein was reduced by at least 60% in fully grown oocytes. The decrease appeared specific because no decrease was observed in either non-targeted mRNAs or proteins. Fertility of transgenic females was severely reduced. Although transgenic eggs could be inseminated, the eggs did not exhibit the normal series of oscillations in intracellular Ca2+, resume meiosis, undergo cortical granule exocytosis, or ZP2 cleavage to ZP2f. Transgenic oocytes also displayed a higher incidence of both the non-surrounded nucleolus chromatin morphology, and abnormal meiotic spindle formation was observed following oocyte maturation. Transgenic oocytes contained less total mRNA (approximately 75-80% that of non-transgenic oocytes) and displayed a reduced level of protein synthesis. Moreover, several of the maturation-associated changes in protein synthesis failed to occur in the transgenic oocytes. These results support a role for MSY2 in stabilizing maternal mRNAs in growing oocytes, a process essential to generate meiotically and developmentally competent oocytes.