The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is overexpressed in various types of solid tumors, including lung and breast cancer and WT1 protein is a tumor antigen for these malignancies. In phase I clinical trials of WT1 peptide-based cancer immunotherapy, two patients with advanced lung cancer were intradermally injected with 0.3 mg of an HLA-A*2402-restricted, 9-mer WT1 peptide emulsified with Montanide ISA51 adjuvant. Consecutive WT1 vaccination at 2-week intervals resulted in a reduction in tumor markers such as chorio-embryonic antigen (CEA) and sialyl Lewis (x) (SLX) and by a transient decrease in tumor size. No adverse effects except for local erythema at the injection sites of WT1 vaccine were observed. These results provided us with the first clinical evidence demonstrating that WT1 peptide-based immunotherapy should be a promising treatment for patients with lung cancer.