[Highest level of division in the organism classification. 1. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes]

Zh Obshch Biol. Jan-Feb 2004;65(1):19-38.
[Article in Russian]


The works on the general classification of all organisms are considered as a convenient opportunity to sum up numerous data obtained in organic world studying. The present stage is characterized by rapid development of the molecular reconstructions that have already caused considerable changes in our classification practice. These changes look especially impressive at studying the organism cellular structure. The great massive of new data allow us to compare Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes on the nucleic acids and especially proteins whose number in Eukaryote cell approaches to several thousands. Basing on the structure of macromolecules one can hypothesize with great certainty about Prokaryote or Eukaryotes origin. The article presents the detailed characteristic of Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes with the emphasis placed on the comparative analysis of biological macromolecules. Among specially considered cellular structures and processes are cell wall, intracellular components, cellular cycle, nucleus, DNA compactness, replication, genome organization, transcription, posttranscriptional modifications, introns, ribosomes and translation, cytoskeleton, mitosis, cytokinesis, cellular organelles, intracellular membranes systems, modes of nutrition, sexual condition. The macromolecular analysis let to carry out the homology of structures and to find out some new connections. It was shown that typology considered as a search for morphological patterns within the biodiversity structure has almost exhausted the subject. It was directed mostly to distinguishing "main" group in contrast with intermediate and aberrant ones, which were considered as minor phenomenon. At present due to macromolecules systematics it is able to estimate the whole diversity of forms including typologically transitive.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biodiversity
  • Classification / methods*
  • Eukaryotic Cells / chemistry
  • Eukaryotic Cells / classification*
  • Eukaryotic Cells / physiology
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Prokaryotic Cells / chemistry
  • Prokaryotic Cells / classification*
  • Prokaryotic Cells / physiology


  • Macromolecular Substances