Solubilizing Excipients in Oral and Injectable Formulations

Pharm Res. 2004 Feb;21(2):201-30. doi: 10.1023/b:pham.0000016235.32639.23.

Abstract

A review of commercially available oral and injectable solution formulations reveals that the solubilizing excipients include water-soluble organic solvents (polyethylene glycol 300, polyethylene glycol 400, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide), non-ionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH 40, Cremophor RH 60, d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, Solutol HS 15, sorbitan monooleate, poloxamer 407, Labrafil M-1944CS, Labrafil M-2125CS, Labrasol, Gellucire 44/14, Softigen 767, and mono- and di-fatty acid esters of PEG 300, 400, or 1750), water-insoluble lipids (castor oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, peppermint oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated vegetable oils, hydrogenated soybean oil, and medium-chain triglycerides of coconut oil and palm seed oil), organic liquids/semi-solids (beeswax, d-alpha-tocopherol, oleic acid, medium-chain mono- and diglycerides), various cyclodextrins (alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin), and phospholipids (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol). The chemical techniques to solubilize water-insoluble drugs for oral and injection administration include pH adjustment, cosolvents, complexation, microemulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, micelles, liposomes, and emulsions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Cyclodextrins / chemistry
  • Drug Carriers
  • Emulsions
  • Excipients / chemistry*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry*
  • Phospholipids / chemistry
  • Solubility
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Surface-Active Agents / chemistry
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical

Substances

  • Cyclodextrins
  • Drug Carriers
  • Emulsions
  • Excipients
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Phospholipids
  • Solvents
  • Surface-Active Agents