The pattern of sensory neuron extensions and connections is established during embryonic development through complex and varied guidance cues that control motility of growth cones and neurite morphogenesis. Semaphorins and neurotrophins are molecules that act as such cues. Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are thought to be part of the semaphorin signal transduction pathway implicated in semaphorin-induced growth cone collapse. In this report, we present evidence that CRMPs are also involved in the neurite extension controlled by neurotrophins. We found that specific antibodies and the dominant-negative mutant protein for CRMP2 both potentiated the neurite extension induced by NGF, while specific antibodies and the corresponding mutant protein for CRMP1 both abolished the neurite extension induced by NT3. Our data suggest that CRMP2 has a negative effect on neurite extension induced by NGF and CRMP1 participates in the neurite formation/extension induced by NT3. These results point to a function for CRMPs in the regulation of neurite outgrowth induced by neurotrophins in sensory neurons.