PHIRE, a deterministic approach to reveal regulatory elements in bacteriophage genomes

Bioinformatics. 2004 Mar 22;20(5):629-35. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg456. Epub 2004 Jan 22.


Motivation: In silico genome analysis of bacteriophage genomes focuses mainly on gene discovery and functional assignment. The search for regulatory elements contained within these genome sequences is often based on prior knowledge of other genomic elements or on learning algorithms of experimentally determined data, potentially leading to a biased prediction output. The PHage In silico Regulatory Elements (PHIRE) program is a standalone program in Visual Basic. It performs an algorithmic string-based search on bacteriophage genome sequences to uncover and extract subsequence alignments hinting at regulatory elements contained within these genomes, in a deterministic manner without any prior experimental or predictive knowledge.

Results: The PHIRE program was tested on known phage genomes with experimentally verified regulatory elements. PHIRE was able to extract phage regulatory sequences correctly for bacteriophages T7, T3, YeO3-12 and lambda, based solely on the genome sequence. For 11 bacteriophages, new predictions of conserved phage-specific putative regulatory elements were made, further corroborating this approach.

Availability: Freely available for academic use. Commercial users should contact the corresponding author.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophages / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / genetics
  • Genes, Regulator / genetics*
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sequence Alignment / methods*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods*
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Software*