The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network (EIN) surveyed its members to characterize antimicrobial restriction policies in their hospitals and the involvement of infectious diseases consultants in this process. Of the 502 respondents (73%), 250 (50%) indicated that their hospital pharmacies would not dispense certain antimicrobials without approval of infectious diseases consultants. Moreover, 89% agreed that infectious diseases consultants need to be directly involved in the approval process. At hospitals with control policies, commonly restricted agents included lipid formulations of amphotericin B, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin. Only 46 EIN members (18%) reported remuneration of infectious diseases consultants for participation in the approval process. Pediatric infectious diseases consultants were more likely to practice in hospitals with restriction policies than were adult infectious diseases consultants (64% vs. 45%; P<.001). Similarly, teaching hospitals were more likely to have antimicrobial-control policies than were nonteaching facilities (60% vs. 17%; P<.001).