Molecular Aspects of Regulatory T Cell Development

Semin Immunol. 2004 Apr;16(2):73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2003.12.002.

Abstract

Naturally arising CD4(+) regulatory T cells are critical mediators of peripheral self tolerance and immune homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that these cells are a dedicated T cell lineage constitutively acting in a dominant, cell extrinsic manner to regulate immune function. These observations are driving a reevaluation of our understanding of the regulation of immune homeostasis and peripheral tolerance. But despite a growing body of phenomenological data, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CD4(+) regulatory T cell development has only recently begun to emerge. This review highlights the major molecular pathways that have been implicated to date in the development of this T cell lineage.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / immunology
  • Antigens, CD / physiology
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology
  • Antigens, Differentiation / physiology
  • B7-1 Antigen / immunology
  • B7-1 Antigen / physiology
  • B7-2 Antigen
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology
  • CD28 Antigens / physiology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / physiology
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2 / immunology
  • Interleukin-2 / physiology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / physiology
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity / immunology
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity / physiology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / physiology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / physiology

Substances

  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • B7-1 Antigen
  • B7-2 Antigen
  • CD28 Antigens
  • CD86 protein, human
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • FOXP3 protein, human
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Interleukin-2
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell