Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Mirtaceae)

J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Mar;91(1):69-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2003.11.018.


The leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Urban & Ekman) Landrum L. (Myrtaceae) are used against the pain and the inflammation in popular medicine of the Caribe area. In the present work, the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effect, and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa have been investigated. The antinociceptive action was assayed in several experimental models in mice: acetic acid, formalin, and hot plate tests. The aqueous extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced the nociception induced by the acetic acid intraperitoneal injection (P<0.001). In the formalin test, the extract also significantly reduced the painful stimulus in both phases of the test (P<0.001). On the contrary, the extract neither significantly increased the latency time of licking nor jumping in the hot plate test. In the anti-inflammatory study, the plant also showed an interesting effect. Aqueous extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) orally administered, significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw at 1, 3, and 5 h (P<0.001). In the TPA test the edema was dose-dependent and significantly reduced by the extract (0.5, 1, and 3 mg per ear) when it was topically applied (P<0.01; P<0.001). The levels of myeloperoxidase enzyme also were reduced in the inflamed tissue by the extract. Acute toxicity also was investigated and the results indicated a moderate toxicity (LD50: 287 +/- 12.9 mg residue/kg; 1.854 +/- 0.083 g plant/kg). These results revealed that the extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua exerts an important antinociceptive activity, associated to an anti-inflammatory effect which to appear be markedly influenced by the inhibition of neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue and that lack of toxic effects at usual doses.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics / isolation & purification
  • Analgesics / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Genus Pimenta*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / enzymology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain / etiology
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Leaves
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Peroxidase