Orchestrating development and function: retrograde BMP signaling in the Drosophila nervous system

Trends Neurosci. 2004 Mar;27(3):143-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2004.01.004.


Recent work has shown that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) growth factors regulate development of the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila. Intriguingly, the same BMP growth factors also influence the expression of circulating hormones that modulate the physiological properties of NMJs. Together, the results suggest that retrograde growth factor signaling by BMPs integrates neuromuscular development and function at both local and global levels in the animal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology*
  • Drosophila
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Feedback
  • Gene Expression / physiology
  • Models, Neurological
  • Nervous System / growth & development*
  • Neuromuscular Junction / growth & development
  • Neuropeptides / genetics
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • gbb protein, Drosophila