The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interleukin 6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, IL-6 soluble receptors, and biochemical parameters of bone turnover after kidney transplantation. Of 64 patients enrolled in the study, 19 received the kidney transplant 2 to 12 months before the study, and 45 within the previous 15 to 175 months. We measured IL-6, TGF-beta 1, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), and procollagen type I propeptide (P1CP) concentrations in the serum, and deoxypyridinoline crosslinks (DPD) in the urine of the patients. In 16 patients in the first posttransplantation year, the concentrations of IL-6 (P = 0.02), TGF-beta 1 (P = 0.01), BALP (P = 0.0002), OC (P = 0.001), and DPD (P = 0.01) were significantly higher than in patients with longer posttranslation period. Statistically significant negative correlation was found between post-transplantation time and IL-6 (P = 0.04), BALP (P = 0.003), OC (P = 0.0009), P1CP (P = 0.03), and DPD (P = 0.01) concentrations. Repeated measurements of the investigated parameters in the first post-transplantation year showed a significant decrease only in TGF-beta I level. In all patients, IL-6 correlated positively with PTH (P = 0.0009) and DPD (P = 0.03), and IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR) with DPD (P = 0.03). A decrease in IL-6 and TGF-beta 1 concentrations that paralleled the decrease in bone turnover markers in the posttransplantation period indicated that IL-6 and TGF-beta 1 were probably involved in the bone turnover after kidney transplantation.