Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of human congenital heart malformation and Holt-Oram syndrome

Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Apr 1;126A(1):93-8. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.20487.


Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is a multiple malformation syndrome associated with congenital heart malformation (CHM) and caused by mutations in the TBX5 transcription factor. Effective prenatal genetic diagnosis of HOS is limited by factors that modify clinical manifestations and confound prediction of an individual's phenotype. Although preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been applied to complex disorders with some cardiovascular manifestations, its utility in Mendelian CHM has not been previously demonstrated. We tested whether PGD and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology, including oocyte donation, can identify fertilized eggs affected by HOS for potential embryo selection. Five donor oocytes were fertilized in vitro with sperm from a HOS patient heterozygous for a Glu69ter-TBX5 mutation and then underwent embryo biopsy and genotyping. One carried the Glu69ter-TBX5 mutation; all others had wildtype genotypes. Two wildtype blastocysts were transferred to the mother, and the resulting singleton pregnancy was successfully delivered. Mutational analysis of fetal amniocytes and postpartum umbilical cord blood confirmed PGD. Fetal ultrasonography as well as postpartum electrocardiography and echocardiography also validated accurate prediction of normal skeletal and cardiac phenotypes. We conclude that PGD is an effective reproductive strategy for HOS patients. As more genetic etiologies for CHM are identified, application of PGD as adjunctive therapy to IVF will be increasingly available to prevent transmission of such diseases from affected parents to their children. Clinical application of PGD must balance the benefits of avoiding disease transmission with the medical risks and financial burdens of IVF.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital / genetics*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / embryology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oocytes / physiology
  • Preimplantation Diagnosis*
  • Syndrome
  • T-Box Domain Proteins / genetics*


  • T-Box Domain Proteins
  • T-box transcription factor 5

Associated data

  • OMIM/142900