We have previously shown that the C57BL/6J (B6) mouse will develop obesity and diabetes if raised on a high-fat diet. Because high fat feeding is associated with hyperphagia, the present study was designed to separate the effects of fat from those of excess caloric consumption in this animal model. B6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF group) diet, high-fat diet (HF group) diet, or high-fat-restricted diet (HFR group), in which intake animals were pair-fed a high-fat diet to caloric level consumed by LF for 11 weeks. Within 3 weeks, HFR were significantly heavier than LF and, after 11 weeks, weight and glucose levels, but not insulin, were significantly increased in HFR when compared to LF. Body composition analysis showed the weight increase in HFR arose from an increase in percent fat consumed. We conclude that reducing the number of kilocalories consumed from a high-fat diet attenuates but does not prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity in the B6 mouse.