Cryptoendolithic actinomycetes from antarctic sandstone rock samples: Micromonospora endolithica sp. nov. and two isolates related to Micromonospora coerulea Jensen 1932

Syst Appl Microbiol. 2004 Mar;27(2):166-74. doi: 10.1078/072320204322881781.


Three cryptoendolithic, aerobic actinomycetes (AA-459T, AA-319 and AA-321) from antarctic sandstone were characterised phenotypically and by molecular taxonomic methods. The isolates had single spores on substrate mycelium, meso-diaminopimelic acid (m-DAP) and glycine (cell wall type II), a whole cell sugar pattern D (galactose, xylose, arabinose, glucose or rhamnose) and phospholipids of type PII (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol). Their predominant fatty acids were iso-16:0 and iso-15:0 or 17:1omega8c, the menaquinone profile was complex with mainly MK10 (H4) and MK10 (H6). A wide variety of sugars and several acids were utilised for growth. The isolates were sensitive to a few antibiotics, but formation and excretion of antibiotics was not observed. Phenotypically, isolates AA-319 and AA-321 were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed close relationship of strains AA-319 and AA-321 with each other (99.5%) and clustering (98.5%) with Micromonospora coerulea DSM 43143T. DNA-DNA hybridisation showed both strains to be genomically highly similar to strain DSM 43143T. Phenotypically they could be viewed as separate taxa, but presently they will be considered as strains of Micromonospora coerulea. Strain AA-459T was phylogenetically close to Micromonospora chersina DSM 44151T (99.1%) and to Micromonospora rosaria DSM 803T, but DNA-DNA similarity with M. chersina DSM 44151T was low with 28.9/33.5 %, indicating the presence of a different and new species. Consequently, isolate AA-459T (DSM 44398T NRRL B-24248T) is described as the type strain of Micromonospora endolithica sp. nov.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antarctic Regions
  • Base Composition
  • Base Sequence
  • Carbohydrates / analysis
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Fatty Acids / analysis
  • Micromonospora / classification*
  • Micromonospora / genetics
  • Micromonospora / isolation & purification*
  • Micromonospora / ultrastructure
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Microscopy, Phase-Contrast
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Phylogeny
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / chemistry
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Soil Microbiology*


  • Carbohydrates
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Fatty Acids
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AJ560635
  • GENBANK/AJ560636
  • GENBANK/AJ560637