Antioxidative bioavailability of artepillin C in Brazilian propolis

Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Apr 15;424(2):181-8. doi: 10.1016/


Propolis has strong antioxidative activity. We investigated here whether this activity was available in intestinal Caco-2 and hepatic HepG2 cells. Phenolics in Brazilian propolis, extracted with ethyl acetate after the removal of resin and wax with 90% methanol, included artepillin C at 21 mmol/100 g, p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid relatives 24mmol, kaempferol and its derivatives 9.4 mmol, naringenin 2.8 mmol, isosakuranetin 0.9 mmol, chrysin at 0.8 mmol/100 g, and several minor components. When the extract was added to the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers, artepillin C was specifically incorporated into the cells and released to the basolateral side mostly without conjugation. Then, artepillin C was added to HepG2 cells and exposed to reactive oxygens. Artepillin C prevented oxidative damage dose-dependently, and suppressed lipid peroxidation evaluated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances by 16% and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA by 36% at a concentration of 20microM. Artepillin C is a bioavailable antioxidant.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacokinetics*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Biological Availability
  • Brazil
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects
  • Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Phenylpropionates / pharmacokinetics*
  • Phenylpropionates / pharmacology*
  • Propolis


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Phenylpropionates
  • artepillin C
  • Propolis