Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether GSTM1 or GSTT1 might be associated with risk of cervical cancer development in Korean women. The multiplicative interaction of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype with p21, p53 polymorphism, and HPV genotype was also investigated.
Methods: From 1997 to 1999, uterine cervical carcinoma was diagnosed in 215 Korean women at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Seoul National University Hospital. None of the women in the control groups (n = 98) had any evidence of cervical lesions, which were confirmed by Pap smear. Finally, 81 cases and 86 controls were genotyped for p21, p53, and GSTM1 and T1 and HPV infection. A multiplex PCR method was used for the genotyping of GSTM1 and GSTT1; direct sequencing for p53 codon 72, high-risk HPV, and PCR-RFLP (BsmAI) for p21 codon. The unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate ORs and 95% CI.
Results: Although the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype was not significantly associated with cervical cancer development for all women, the GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer development in women with high-risk HPV infection (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.0-8.2). Although the frequency of overall GSTT1 null genotype was significantly lower in cervical carcinoma patients with high-risk HPV infection (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1.0), almost 2-fold increased risk was observed among women with GSTT1 null and Arg/Arg genotype (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.7-5.4). Although the cervical cancer risk was 3.3-fold increased in women with null and Arg/Arg genotype compared to women with GSTM1 present and p21 Ser-containing genotype, there was no significant multiplicative interaction between GSTM1 and p21 (P for interaction = 0.785) or p53 (P for interaction = 0.815).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the risk of cervical cancer may be related to GSTM1 genotype in women with high-risk HPV infection and that there is a possible gene-gene interaction in the incidence of cervical cancer.