Glutathione S-transferases (GST), xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, are involved in the metabolic detoxification of various environmental carcinogens. Particular genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes have been shown to influence individual susceptibility against various pathologies including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The results from the meta-analysis indicate that GSTM1*0 null allele was associated with enhanced risk for lung (OR (95% IC) = 1,17 (1,07-1,27)), bladder (OR = 1,44 (1,23-1,68) and larynx cancer (OR = 1,42 (1,10-1,84)). GSTT1 null genotype was associated with increased astrocytomas (OR = 2,36 (1,41-3,94)) and meningiomas (OR = 3,57 (1,82-6,92)) cancer risk. GSTP1 allelic polymorphism influence the development of bladder cancer in smokers (OR = 2,40 (1,12-4,95)) and occupational asthma (OR = 3,5 (2,7-4,6)). Finally, GSTM1*0 null allele and GSTT1*1 functional allele were associated with increased risk for coronary heart diseases in smokers (OR = 2,30 (1,40-9,00)) and OR = 2,5 (1,30-4,80), respectively). The GSTT1*1 functional allele was also significantly associated with increased risk of lower extremity arterial disease (OR = 3,60 (1,40-9,00). These epidemiological data suggest that genetic GST polymorphisms influence the individual susceptibility to these diseases. Contrary to cardiovascular disease, no evidence of interaction between GST genotype and smoking status was found in lung cancer but it has not been studied in other cancers. Consequently, other works are necessary to study the potential interaction between GST genotype and environmental carcinogens including tobacco smoke extract.
Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 20003.