We have evaluated the expression of the reporter beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter in flowers and pollen from 14 independent transgenic strawberry lines. Of the 14 lines evaluated, 13 (92.8%) showed GUS activity--as estimated by the histochemical GUS assay--in some floral organs, with expression being most common in the flower stem, sepals, petals, ovary and stigma. Ten of these thirteen transgenic lines (77%) showed GUS activity in pollen, although the percentages of positive pollen per flower varied greatly among the different lines. A study of the GUS expression during pollen maturation showed that the (CaMV 35S) promoter showed low expression in pollen from flower buds before anthesis but was activated in mature pollen following anther dehiscence. The percentages of pollen grains that showed GUS activity ranged from 2.1% to 46.3%. These percentages were similar or even higher when mature pollen was stored dry at room temperature for 2 weeks. After 5 weeks of storage, the percentages of GUS-positive pollen decreased in two of the six lines analysed but remained at similar values in the other four lines. GUS activity was also measured in protein extracts of mature pollen by means of the fluorometric GUS assay, with the values obtained ranging from 3.8 micromol MU mg protein(-1) h(-1) to 0.26 micromol MU mg protein(-1) h(-1). Contrary to the generally held view that the CaMV 35S promoter is virtually silent in pollen, we conclude that it is highly expressed in transgenic strawberry pollen.