Campath-1H, an anti-CD52 antibody, is being used at our institution as immunosuppression in multivisceral and intestinal transplantation. We reviewed the pathologic findings of 1696 small bowel allograft biopsies obtained in the first 250 days posttransplant from 78 patients who underwent isolated intestinal or multivisceral transplantation and received induction immunosuppression with Campath (n = 30) or Zenapax (n = 57). We found an overall reduced incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in patients receiving Campath (19.1%) compared with those on Zenapax (32.8%). The majority of Campath patients showed no rejection or was indeterminate for rejection over the period of measurement. The frequencies of mild and moderate ACR were approximately twice and three times more common, respectively, in Zenapax-treated patients. The mean grade of ACR in Campath patients compared with Zenapax patients was significantly lower (P <.01) during the first 6 weeks posttransplant. Thereafter, the grade of rejection in both patient groups showed fluctuation, with Zenapax patients sometimes having lower values (eg, at 2 to 4 months) than Campath patients. Patient and graft survival was not significantly different between the two groups. These data suggest that the incidence of ACR is significantly reduced with Campath during the first 2 months posttransplant, when compared with Zenapax. However, the incidence and intensity of ACR following this initial time period shows vacillation with both types of immunosuppression.