Several studies have demonstrated abnormal MRI findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), especially hypertrophy and abnormal enhancement of spinal nerve roots, but there have been few reports on ultrasonographic findings of spinal nerve roots in CIDP. To determine whether ultrasonography (US) enables detection of hypertrophy of the cervical nerve roots, how frequently hypertrophy occurs in CIDP, and whether US findings correlate with any clinical and laboratory features, US of cervical nerve roots was performed using a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer in 13 CIDP patients and 35 control subjects. A coronal oblique plane with a transducer placed on the lateral side of the neck was used to visualize the cervical nerve roots just after their point of exit from the cervical foramina, and their diameters were measured. US demonstrated hypertrophy of the cervical nerve roots in 9 (69%) of the 13 CIDP patients as compared with findings in control subjects. The degree of hypertrophy was significantly associated with the level of CSF protein (chi2=5.8, p<0.05, logistic simple regression analysis) but not with other clinical features. US is considered to be a useful method for evaluating cervical nerve root hypertrophy, which is frequently seen in patients with CIDP, particularly in patients with elevated level of CSF protein.