This study analyzed the effect of the platelet count in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone regeneration in vivo. Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were used. PRP was produced using the Platelet Concentrate Collection System (PCCS) (3i, Miami, FL, USA). After inducing ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia, a self-tapping titanium screw (Branemark MK III TiUnite, 3.75 x 7 mm) was inserted in each distal femur; the femurs were randomized so that one side was treated with PRP while the other (control) was not. Intravital fluorochrome staining was performed on days 1, 7 (1.5 ml of 2% doxycycline/kg bodyweight), 14 (6% xylenol orange, 1.5 ml/kg), and 21 (1% calcein green, 5 ml/kg). Animals were euthanized on day 28 (n = 20). Specimens were prepared for histomorphological evaluation according to Donath and Breuner [J. Oral Pathol. 11 (1982) 318]. Comparing the bone regeneration (fluorochrome staining) in the 4-week implants (n = 19), the only significant difference (sign test, P = 0.004) was seen with intermediate platelet concentrations (n = 9,503,000-1,729,000 platelets/microl PRP). There were no differences in the bone/implant contact rates between the test and the control side among the three groups. The platelet concentration required for a positive PRP effect on bone regeneration seems to span a very limited range. Advantageous biological effects seem to occur when PRP with a platelet concentration of approximately 1,000,000/microl is used. At lower concentrations, the effect is suboptimal, while higher concentrations might have a paradoxically inhibitory effect. On the other hand, the effect of this type of platelet concentrate was not beneficial to accelerate the osseointegration of enosseous dental implants.