IGF-IR-mediated signaling promotes survival, anchorage-independent growth, and oncogenic transformation, as well as tumor growth and metastasis formation in vivo. NVP-AEW541 is a pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivative small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-IR, capable of distinguishing between the IGF-IR (IC50 = 0.086 microM) and the closely related InsR (IC50 = 2.3 microM) in cells. As expected for a specific IGF-IR kinase inhibitor, NVP-AEW541 abrogates IGF-I-mediated survival and colony formation in soft agar at concentrations that are consistent with inhibition of IGF-IR autophosphorylation. In vivo, this orally bioavailable compound inhibits IGF-IR signaling in tumor xenografts and significantly reduces the growth of IGF-IR-driven fibrosarcomas. Thus, NVP-AEW541 represents a class of selective, small molecule IGF-IR kinase inhibitors with proven in vivo antitumor activity and potential therapeutic application.