Glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes measured by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of a single glucose derivative

Anal Biochem. 2004 Apr 15;327(2):149-55. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2003.12.036.


A triple-tracer method was developed to provide absolute fluxes contributing to endogenous glucose production and hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle fluxes in 24-h-fasted rats by (2)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a single glucose derivative. A primed, intravenous [3,4-(13)C(2)]glucose infusion was used to measure endogenous glucose production; intraperitoneal (2)H(2)O (to enrich total body water) was used to quantify sources of glucose (TCA cycle, glycerol, and glycogen), and intraperitoneal [U-(13)C(3)] propionate was used to quantify hepatic anaplerosis, pyruvate cycling, and TCA cycle flux. Plasma glucose was converted to monoacetone glucose (MAG), and a single (2)H and (13)C NMR spectrum of MAG provided the following metabolic data (all in units of micromol/kg/min; n = 6): endogenous glucose production (40.4+/-2.9), gluconeogenesis from glycerol (11.5+/-3.5), gluconeogenesis from the TCA cycle (67.3+/-5.6), glycogenolysis (1.0+/-0.8), pyruvate cycling (154.4+/-43.4), PEPCK flux (221.7+/-47.6), and TCA cycle flux (49.1+/-16.8). In a separate group of rats, glucose production was not different in the absence of (2)H(2)O and [U-(13)C]propionate, demonstrating that these tracers do not alter the measurement of glucose turnover.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acetonitriles / pharmacokinetics
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Citric Acid Cycle / physiology*
  • Fasting
  • Gluconeogenesis / physiology*
  • Glucose / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glucose / analysis
  • Glucose / biosynthesis*
  • Glucose / chemistry*
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular / methods*
  • Radioactive Tracers
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Uridine Diphosphate / pharmacokinetics


  • Acetonitriles
  • Blood Glucose
  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Radioactive Tracers
  • 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose
  • Uridine Diphosphate
  • Glucose
  • acetonitrile