1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Trolox on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and gene expression during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). 2. Rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, and 5 h (acute phase) and 24 h (subacute phase) of reperfusion. Rats were treated intravenously with Trolox (2.5 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle, 5 min before reperfusion. 3. The serum alanine aminotransferase level and lipid peroxidation were increased as a result of I/R. These increases were attenuated by Trolox. Reduced glutathione concentration decreased in I/R group, and this decrease was inhibited by Trolox. 4. Both total hepatic CYP content and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity decreased after I/R, which were restored by Trolox. 5. CYP1A1 activity and its protein level decreased 24 h after reperfusion; decreases which were prevented by Trolox. Both the activity and mRNA expression of CYP1A2 decreased 24 h after reperfusion. The decrease in CYP1A2 mRNA was prevented by Trolox. CYP2B1 activity and mRNA expression decreased 5 h after reperfusion. The decrease in CYP2B1 activity was prevented by Trolox. In contrast, the CYP2E1 activity and its protein level increased 5 h after reperfusion and this increase was prevented by Trolox. 6. The expression of TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNAs increased after I/R. Trolox inhibited increase in iNOS mRNA expression. 7. Trolox ameliorates hepatic drug-metabolizing dysfunction, as indicated by abnormalities in CYP isoforms during I/R, and this protection is likely due to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species.