Understanding haematological malignancies at the protein level is important as the development of targeted treatments must be based on knowledge regarding the molecular pathogenesis of the tumour, inherited genetic variation and the mode of action of drugs. 'Proteomics' describes the analysis of the entire proteome of a cell or tissue and incorporates multiple technologies including Western blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and ProteinChip-based technology. Although there are a limited number of studies to date in haematology those performed highlight the potential future impact of these technologies in the discovery of novel markers, proteins associated with drug resistance and the identification of tumour biomarkers which may facilitate the development of a rapid diagnostic test easily applicable in the clinical setting. Rapid large-scale analysis of the proteome in normal pathways and disease offers the opportunity of identification of potential diagnostic/prognostic markers and proteins associated with the malignant phenotype. This review discusses the current situation regarding the use of these technologies and the potential opportunities their future use may offer in the field of haematology.