Specially selected music in the cardiac laboratory-an important tool for improvement of the wellbeing of patients

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2004 Apr;3(1):21-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2003.10.001.


Purpose: To investigate the effect of a specially selected music sound environment on the feeling of wellbeing of adult, lightly sedated patients in a Cardiac Catheter Laboratory undergoing invasive procedures.

Method: Patients (n=193) were randomly assigned to either a music group, who listened to music during the procedure (n=99) or to a non-music group (n=94). Immediately after the procedure all patients were interviewed by a questionnaire about their opinion of the sound environment in the room and about their feeling of wellbeing.

Results: In the music group 91% of the patients defined the sound environment as very pleasant/pleasant - compared to 56% in the non-music group. The number of patients with 'no opinion' on the sound environment was lower in the music group than in the non-music group (8% vs. 42%). In the non-music group only 34% of the patients would have liked to listen to music, if possible, whereas 82% of the patients in the music group were very pleased/pleased with the music. Both groups noticed basic sounds and noises with similar frequencies. In the music group 62% of the patients noticed the music spontaneously. Sixty-eight patients (68%) reported that music was of major positive importance to their feeling of wellbeing. These patients expressed that music made them feel less tense, more relaxed and safe. The results were not related to age, sex or procedure.

Conclusion: Specially selected music had a positive effect on the wellbeing of patients and their opinion on the sound environment during invasive cardiac procedures. Based on the negative expectations and the positive experience of the patients with regard to music environment, we suggest that specially selected music should be a part of the sound environment in the Cardiac Catheter Laboratory.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Cardiac Catheterization* / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Catheterization* / psychology
  • Denmark
  • Female
  • Health Facility Environment / standards
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Music Therapy / methods
  • Music Therapy / standards*
  • Negativism
  • Noise / adverse effects
  • Stress, Psychological* / etiology
  • Stress, Psychological* / prevention & control
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome