Housing characteristics and children's respiratory health in the Russian Federation

Am J Public Health. 2004 Apr;94(4):657-62. doi: 10.2105/ajph.94.4.657.


Objectives: We studied housing characteristics, parental factors, and respiratory health conditions in Russian children.

Methods: We studied a population of 5951 children from 9 Russian cities, whose parents answered a questionnaire on their children's respiratory health, home environment, and housing characteristics. The health outcomes were asthma conditions, current wheeze, dry cough, bronchitis, and respiratory allergy.

Results: Respiratory allergy and dry cough increased in association with the home being adjacent to traffic. Consistent positive associations were observed between some health conditions and maternal smoking during pregnancy, many health conditions and lifetime exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and nearly all health conditions and water damage and molds in the home.

Conclusions: Vicinity to traffic, dampness, mold, and ETS are important determinants of children's respiratory health in Russia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollution / adverse effects
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Asthma / epidemiology
  • Asthma / etiology
  • Bronchitis / epidemiology
  • Bronchitis / etiology
  • Child
  • Child Welfare / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cough / epidemiology
  • Cough / etiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Health Surveys
  • Housing* / standards
  • Housing* / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Humidity
  • Logistic Models
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / etiology
  • Respiratory Sounds / etiology
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases* / etiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / etiology
  • Russia / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • Urban Health / statistics & numerical data


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution