Reproductive life milestones in women with Parkinson's disease

Funct Neurol. Oct-Dec 2003;18(4):211-7.


Reproductive life milestones were studied in 150 unselected women with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and in 300 postmenopausal healthy women (PM). Duration of reproductive life was found to be similar in the two groups. The women with PD reported significantly more premenstrual symptoms, fewer deliveries and abortions, and less use of contraception. Time and mode of menopause onset were similar in PD and PM, but the PD women reported significantly more hot flushes, less insomnia, depression, urinary incontinence and dyspareunia, and less recourse to hormone replacement therapy than the PM women. Women diagnosed with PD before the menopause reported more premenstrual symptoms and contraceptive use compared with those with postmenopausal PD onset, as well as a premenstrual worsening of PD symptoms in more than 50% of cases. Our data indicate poor adaptation of neuronal pathways to the hormonal fluctuations of reproductive life in women with PD, supporting the existence of a qualitative relationship between PD and reproductive events.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Climacteric / physiology
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Female
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood
  • Genital Diseases, Female / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events*
  • Menarche / physiology
  • Menopause / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease*
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone