Synthesis, Screening, and Molecular Modeling of New Potent and Selective Antagonists at the Alpha 1d Adrenergic Receptor

J Med Chem. 2004 Apr 8;47(8):1900-18. doi: 10.1021/jm030944+.


In the present study, more than 75 compounds structurally related to BMY 7378 have been designed and synthesized. Structural variations of each part of the reference molecule have been introduced, obtaining highly selective ligands for the alpha(1d) adrenergic receptor. The molecular determinants for selectivity at this receptor are essentially held by the phenyl substituent in the phenylpiperazine moiety. The integration of an extensive SAR analysis with docking simulations using the rhodopsin-based models of the three alpha(1)-AR subtypes and of the 5-HT(1A) receptor provides significant insights into the characterization of the receptor binding sites as well as into the molecular determinants of ligand selectivity at the alpha(1d)-AR and the 5-HT(1A) receptors. The results of multiple copies simultaneous search (MCSS) on the substituted phenylpiperazines together with those of manual docking of compounds BMY 7378 and 69 into the putative binding sites of the alpha(1a)-AR, alpha(1b)-AR, alpha(1d)-AR, and the 5-HT(1A) receptors suggest that the phenylpiperazine moiety would dock into a site formed by amino acids in helices 3, 4, 5, 6 and extracellular loop 2 (E2), whereas the spirocyclic ring of the ligand docks into a site formed by amino acids of helices 1, 2, 3, and 7. This docking mode is consistent with the SAR data produced in this work. Furthermore, the binding site of the imide moiety does not allow for the simultaneous involvement of the two carbonyl oxygen atoms in H-bonding interactions, consistent with the SAR data, in particular with the results obtained with the lactam derivative 128. The results of docking simulations also suggest that the second and third extracellular loops may act as selectivity filters for the substituted phenylpiperazines. The most potent and selective compounds for alpha(1d) adrenergic receptor, i.e., 69 (Rec 26D/038) and 128 (Rec 26D/073), are characterized by the presence of the 2,5-dichlorophenylpiperazine moiety.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists*
  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / chemical synthesis*
  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / chemistry
  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • CHO Cells
  • Cricetinae
  • Guinea Pigs
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Imides / chemical synthesis*
  • Imides / chemistry
  • Imides / pharmacology
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Ligands
  • Male
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscle Contraction / drug effects
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / drug effects
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / physiology
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Radioligand Assay
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A / metabolism
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 / chemistry
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 / metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists
  • Spiro Compounds / chemical synthesis*
  • Spiro Compounds / chemistry
  • Spiro Compounds / pharmacology
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • 8-((4-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-8-azaspiro(4,5)decane-7,9-dione
  • 8-(2-(4-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-8-azaspiro(4,5)dec-9,10-en-7-one
  • ADRA1D protein, human
  • Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists
  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists
  • Imides
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1
  • Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists
  • Spiro Compounds
  • Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A