A mapping study of cystectomy specimens in three cases of pure squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases with transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation is described, with an emphasis on the histogenesis of pure squamous cell carcinoma. Two of the three cases of pure squamous cell carcinoma had extensive benign keratinizing mucosa and an atypical squamous metaplastic mucosa contiguous with the tumour. These pure squamous cell carcinomas seemed to be derived from the squamous metaplasia. On the other hand, in all except one of the cases of transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation, there was neither benign keratinizing nor atypical squamous metaplastic mucosa in the bladder. The quantitative amounts of both the transitional cell and squamous components differed from case to case in 28 cases with transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Five of the 28 had a tumour composed predominantly of a squamous component with minute transitional cell components at the margin. In another two cases, transitional carcinoma in situ or satellite tumours of transitional cells were present adjacent to the main tumour which was composed of squamous cell carcinoma alone. We think these seven tumours originated as a result of extensive squamous differentiation in the transitional cell carcinomas. These features may indicate two forms of histogenesis of pure squamous cell carcinoma. The first is malignant transformation on the basis of squamous metaplasia of the bladder mucosa and the second is extensive squamous differentiation in a pre-existing transitional cell carcinoma.