New procedures in facial plastic surgery using botulinum toxin A

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2003 Nov;11(4):515-20. doi: 10.1016/S1064-7406(03)00092-0.


New indications for botulinum toxin A injection in facial plastic surgery have begun to emerge beyond the management of facial rhytids. This paper described a role for botulinum toxin in the rehabilitation from facial nerve paralysis, in the pharmacologic browlift, and in the nonsurgical management of platysmal bands. These procedures are not meant as a replacement for surgery, but rather as a less invasive alternative, or as an adjunctive modality. They are most useful in cases of functional or dynamic disorders, as opposed to problems of excessive or lax tissues. This article presented several clinical studies that give supportive evidence for the efficacy of the procedures. Further, larger studies with more objective measurements are necessary before these procedures become widely accepted.

MeSH terms

  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage*
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A / adverse effects
  • Cosmetic Techniques / adverse effects
  • Facial Muscles
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intramuscular / adverse effects
  • Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Neuromuscular Agents / adverse effects
  • Rhytidoplasty*
  • Skin Aging


  • Neuromuscular Agents
  • Botulinum Toxins, Type A