Laryngeal reinnervation

Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2004 Feb;37(1):161-81, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/S0030-6665(03)00164-6.


Laryngeal reinnervation refers to any of a number of surgical procedures intended to restore neural connections to the larynx, which have usually been lost from some type of trauma (eg, surgical). The nerve function(s) to be restored may be those of the recurrent laryngeal nerve or its subdivisions, those of the superior laryngeal nerve, or both, and they may be motor or sensory. Several different donor nerves are available and have been described. The technique used may be direct end-to-end anastomosis (neurorrhaphy), direct implantation of a nerve ending into a muscle, the nerve-muscle pedicle technique, or muscle-nerve-muscle methods. These nerves and techniques may be combined in many ways. A number of new techniques have been reported in animal studies; however, the animal studies do not always predict the results of analogous surgeries in human patients. The historical and current perspectives on these techniques are discussed in this article.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Animals
  • Cricoid Cartilage / innervation
  • Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery
  • Laryngeal Nerves / physiopathology
  • Laryngeal Nerves / surgery*
  • Larynx / transplantation
  • Peripheral Nerves / transplantation
  • Phrenic Nerve / transplantation
  • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis / physiopathology
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis / surgery*
  • Voice Quality