The effects of biphasic waveform design on post-resuscitation myocardial function

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Apr 7;43(7):1228-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.10.055.


Objectives: This study examined the effects of biphasic truncated exponential waveform design on survival and post-resuscitation myocardial function after prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF).

Background: Biphasic waveforms are more effective than monophasic waveforms for successful defibrillation, but optimization of energy and current levels to minimize post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction has been largely unexplored. We examined a low-capacitance waveform typical of low-energy application (low-energy biphasic truncated exponential [BTEL]; 100 microF, < or =200 J) and a high-capacitance waveform typical of high-energy application (high-energy biphasic truncated exponential [BTEH]; 200 microF, > or =200 J).

Methods: Four groups of anesthetized 40- to 45-kg pigs were investigated. After 7 min of electrically induced VF, a 15-min resuscitation attempt was made using sequences of up to three defibrillation shocks followed by 1 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Animals were randomized to BTEL at 150 J or 200 J or to BTEH at 200 J or 360 J.

Results: Resuscitation was unsuccessful in three of the five animals treated with BTEH at 200 J. All other attempts were successful. Significant therapy effects were observed for survival (p = 0.035), left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.001), stroke volume (p < 0.001), fractional area change (p < 0.001), cardiac output (p = 0.044), and mean aortic pressure (p < 0.001). Hemodynamic outcomes were negatively associated with energy and average current but positively associated with peak current. Peak current was the only significant predictor of survival (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Maximum survival and minimum myocardial dysfunction were observed with the low-capacitance 150-J waveform, which delivered higher peak current while minimizing energy and average current.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Electric Countershock
  • High-Energy Shock Waves / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Swine
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Fibrillation / physiopathology
  • Ventricular Fibrillation / therapy